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SOILS IN INDIA


Published on: 12/4/2020 12:35:01 AM

Soil is the most important resource. It is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.

SOILS PROFILE OF INDIA

Soil type

Formation

Distribution

Composition

Characteristics

Crops grown

Alluvial soil

Silt deposition by river

UP, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, WB and Jharkhand

Potash

Texture- Coarse in upper region, medium coarse in middle, and fine in lower region

Rabi and Kharif crops: Rice, wheat, sugarcane, oil seeds, jute, etc.

Black soil

Weathering of lava rocks

Deccan plateau, Krishna-Godavari valley, Maharashtra, Gujarat, AP, MP, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh

Potash, Iron, lime, aluminium, Mg, Ca

Retains moisture for a longer period

Cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, wheat, citrus fruits, vegetables and oil seeds.

Red soil

Decomposition of metamorphic rocks

Tamil Nadu, Odisha, South of Karnataka, Meghalaya

Iron and potash

-Fertile on application of fertilisers;

- Acidic and coarse

Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, pulses

Laterite soil

Weathering of rocks under monsoon climatic conditions

AP, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, WB, Odisha

Iron

Highly acidic in nature and porous

Coffee, rubber, tea, millets, cashew

Desert soil

Weathering of rocks due to temperature variations

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab

Salts

Loose, porous and coarse

Wheat, melon, bajra

Scanty of mountain and hills

Weathering of sedimentary rocks

Assam hills, WB, slopes of Uttarakhand

Iron

Acidic, porous and coarse

Tea, fruits, medicinal plants

Saline and Alkaline soil

Accumulation of tidal water

Bihar, Jharkhand, UP, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra

Na, Mg, Ca

Infertile and render

Unfit for agriculture

Peaty and Marshy soil

In humid regions

Kerala, coasts of Odisha and Tamil Nadu, Sunderbans of WB

Iron and organic matter

Black and heavy

Jute and rice

Also Read | THE CLIMATE OF INDIA | DRAINAGE SYSTEM OF INDIA