Published on: 11/27/2020 3:33:05 AM

Energy has been universally recognized as one of the most important inputs for economic growth and human development. Mineral fuels are essential for generation of power, required by agriculture, industry, transport and other sectors of the economy.

There are two types of the energy resources: Conventional energy resources (Example- Coal, Petroleum, natural gas, atomic energy and hydel energy); Non-conventional energy resources (Example- Biogas, biomass, solar energy, wind energy, small hydro-electricity, tidal energy, wave energy, OTEC energy and geo-thermal energy).


It is the foremost power resources in India. 67% is the share of the coal in total production of electricity. Coal fulfils the 61% of total commercial energy demand of the country. About 96% of total coal reserve in India is found in the Gondwana structure which has been formed mainly in Carboniferous and Permian periods. The rest of the coal is of the tertiary epoch.

There are four types of coal found in the world: (1) Anthracite-Best quality coal, (2) Bituminous- Medium quality coal, (3) Lignite-Lowest quality coal, (4) Peat-Middle stage in the process of coal making. Parts of wood are remarkably present in it.


Name of Coal Field


Damodar Valley Coalfield

It is extended in Jharkhand and West Bengal. Jharia in Jharkhand in the largest coal mining field. Most of the cooking coal in India is obtained from here. Other major coalfields in Jharkhand are Chandrapura, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura and Ramgarh.

Son Valley Coalfield

The coal fields of mainly Madhya Pradesh and partly Uttar Pradesh come under it. The Singrauli mining area (Sidhi district) in Madhya Pradesh is famous for coal production. Sohagpur, Umaria, Tatapani and Ramkola are other major coalfields in Madhya Pradesh.

Mahanadi Valley Coalfield

It is expanded in Chhattisgarh and Orissa. Korba (Korba district), Vishrampur, Jhilmil and Chirmiri (Ambikapur district) in Chhattisgarh; Talcher (Dhenkanal district) and Rampur-Hingir (Sambalpur district) in Orissa are major mining fields.

Godavari Valley Coalfield

It is expanded mainly in Andhra Pradesh. Karimnagar, Khammam and Warangal are major coal producing districts. The Singreni coalfield (Khammam district) in Andhra Pradesh is famous coal field. Tandoor and Sasti (Adilabad) are other major mining fields.

Wardha Valley Coalfield

It is located mainly in Chandrapur district in the Vidarbha region of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Chandrapur (Chandrapur district), Vallarpur (Yavatmal district) and Kampati (Nagpur district) are major mining field.

Satpura Valley Coalfield

It is situated in the Satpura range, south of the Narmada River. Mahapani (Narsinghpur district, Madhya Pradesh) is the major mining centre. Ghorbari in the Kanhan valley is famous mining field. Patharkheda (Betul district) in the Pench valley is a major mining field.

Rajmahal Valley Coalfield

It is located in the north-eastern border of Jharkhand. Lalmatia is the major mining centre. About 80% coal in India is mined by open cast system.


Petroleum and natural gas are found in the fossil-rich rocks of the Tertiary epoch. In fold rocks, they are found in the anticlinal part. Natural gas is found at the top, mineral oil below that and water at the bottom.


Name of Oilfield


Digboi Oilfield

It is located in Assam. It was the only petroleum producing area till 1954. Oil from here is refined Digboi refinery.

Naharkatiya Oilfield

It is situated on the left bank of the river Burhi Dihang. Oil mined from here is sent through pipeline to Noonmati (Assam) and Barauni (Bihar) for refining.

Moran-Hugirijang Oilfield

It is located in Assam. Besides petroleum, natural gas is also available in huge quality in this oilfield of the Brahmaputra river valley. Oil from here is sent to Barauni for refinement.

Rudrasagar-Lakwa Oilfield

It is situated in the district of Sibsagar in the Brahmaputra valley.

Surma valley Oilfield

It is located in Assam. Badarpur, Patharia and Masimpur are the major oilfields come under it.

Nigru Oilfield

It is located in Tirap district of Arunachal Pradesh.

Borholla Oilfield

It is located in Nagaland (adjacent to the border of Assam).

Ankaleshwar Oilfield

It is the largest and oldest oilfield in Gujarat. It is situated near Bharuch in the southern alluvial area of the Narmada. Oil from here is sent to Trombay and Koyali for refining.

Khambhat and Lewnage Oilfield

It is situated in Borsad which is on the northern side of the Gulf of Khambhat.

Kallol Oilfield

It is located in Gujarat.

Mehsana Oilfield

It is located in Gujarat.

Navagaon Oilfield

It is located in Gujarat.

Kosamba Oilfield

It is located in Gujarat.

Sanand Oilfield

It is located in Gujarat.

Bombay High Oilfield

It is located on the continental shelf off the coast of Maharashtra about 176 km north-west of Mumbai.

Bassein Oilfield

It is located to the south of Mumbai High, this is a recent discovery endowed with reserves which may prove to be higher than those of the Mumbai High.

Aliabet Oilfield

It is located at Aliabet Island in the Gulf of Khambhat about 45 km off Bhavnagar.

Godavari-Krishna River Basin Oilfield

Here, oil is found in both offshore and onshore areas. In the onshore or coastal areas it is expanded from Godavari Thale (Andhra Pradesh) to Tanjavur area of Tamil Nadu. In the offshore area, oil is found in the Ravva structure.

Kaveri Basin Oilfield

Here, oil wells are found in Narimanam and Kovilappal. Oil here will be refined in the Kaveri refinery (under construction) in Panaigudi near Chennai.



It is often found with mineral oil. The Gas Authority of India Limited was set up in 1984 as a public sector undertaking to transport and market natural gas. It is obtained along with oil in all the oil fields but exclusive reserves have been located along the eastern coast as well as (Tamil Nadu, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh), Tripura, Rajasthan and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Distribution of natural gas

1. Assam-Meghalaya Region

2. Gujarat Region

3. The Gulf of Khambhat Region

4. Bombay High Region

5. Ravva Structure Region

6. Perangulam area in Tamil Nadu


It is the most important among non-fossil energy resources.  They are found in the slate rocks of the Pre-Cambrian (Archaean Schist) and Dharwar periods in India. Uranium and Thorium are major minerals for the production of atomic energy. Uranium is mined directly whereas thorium is obtained mainly from monazite and Ilmenite. Thorium is also obtained beryllium, zircon, antimony and graphite.

Distribution of Atomic Minerals In India


It is found in Singhbhum and Hazaribagh districts of Jharkhand, and Gaya District of Bihar, and in sedimentary rocks of Saharanpur District of Uttar Pradesh.


It is derived from monazite. It is produced in Kerala, Jharkhand, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan.


Its reserves are in the states of Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.


It is found mainly in the coastal sand of Kerala.


It is found Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.


Odisha is the largest producer of graphite. Its largest reserve is in Ramanathpuram in Tamil Nadu. Its reserves are also in Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh.



  • The first atomic power station was established in Tarapur (Maharashtra) in 1969 AD with the assistance of the USA.
  • The second atomic power station was established in Rawatbhata (Near Kota, Rajasthan) in Rana Pratap Sagar dam because of the facility.
  • The third atomic power station has been established in Kalpakkam (60 km away from Chennai, Tamil Nadu) in 1984 AD.
  • The fourth atomic power station has been established in Narora (Bulanshahar district, Uttar Pradesh) in 1989 AD.
  •  The fifth atomic power station has been established in Kakrapara (Surat district, Gujarat) in 1993 AD.
  • The sixth atomic power station has been established in Kaiga (Karwar, North Kanara district, Karnataka) in 1999 AD.
  • The seventh atomic power station has been established in Kundakkulam (Tamil Nadu) with the assistance of Russia. It is on the bank of the river Tamirapani.


Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), Mumbai, Maharashtra is given some regulation powers by AEC. Following Research institutions affiliated to BARC

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai

Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), Hyderabad

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Hyderabad, Hyderabad

Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu

National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar

Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore

National Board for Higher Mathematics (NBHM), New Delhi

Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata

Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES), Mumbai

India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai

Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL), Hyderabad

Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai

Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL), Mumbai

Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata

Uranium Corporation of India, Singhbhum

Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar

Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL), Mumbai, Maharashtra

Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Allahabad

Bharatiya Nabhkiya Vidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI), Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu

Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc), Chennai

Heavy Water Board (HWB), Mumbai

Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar

Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad

Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai

Board of Radiation & Isotope Technology (BRIT), Mumbai







































India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass. It has the largest programmes for the development of these renewable energy resources. The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas.

1. Solar Energy: India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj, where solar energy is used to sterilise milk cans. It is expected that use of solar energy will be able to minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

2. Wind Power: India is the fourth largest in the world (after Germany, USA and Spain) and the first in Asia in the production of wind energy. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.

3. Geo-Thermal Energy: It refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth. Projects are being run in the direction of geothermal energy generation and development in 'Manikaran' in Himachal Pradesh and 'Puga valley' in Surajkund in Jharkhand and ‘Tapovan’ in Uttarakhand.