Published on: 12/11/2020 4:36:23 AM

Ravines or badland topography is developed when the horizontal or slightly tilted alluvial deposits, are acted upon by gully and/ or wind erosion giving rise to a dissected terrain. The upliftment of land due to neo-tectonic activity results in rejuvenation of rivers. These rivers or channels, equipped with the newly gained energy, attempt to reach base level of erosion, thus producing a dense system of interconnected gullies and ridges that constitute badlands.

One of the best examples is perhaps offered by the Indo-Gangetic plains of northern India which represent one of the most extensive deposits of alluvial in the world. These alluvial sediments were deposited in the Himalayan foreland basin between Shivalik’s in the north and Bundelkhand- Vindhyan Plateau in the south.


The middle alluvial Ganga plains, part of the larger Himalayan foreland basin, exhibit development of an intricate network of gullies, ravines and extensive dissected landscape (badlands) carved out in the plains of Chambal, Betwa and Yamuna rivers and their tributaries in central India.

The strengthening of southwest monsoon in the Holocene is believed to be the reason for increased headward erosion. The present-day ravines consist of steep slopes and channels separated by ridges, which gained notoriety as the refuge for 'dacoits of Chambal' since centuries.

Distribution of Badlands in India

  • Uttar Pradesh: Chambal, Etawah. Mathura, Jalaun, Jhansi, Hamirpur, Banda, Agra and Mirzapur.
  • Madhya Pradesh: Chambal, Sindh, Shivpur, Morena. Bhind, Gwalior, Ujjain and Mandsor
  • Rajasthan: Chambal, Banas, Kalisindh, Parbati, Mej, Morel, Kota, Bundi, Sawai. Madhopur, Tonk, Jhaleswar. Jaipur and Bharatpur.
  • Bihar: Hazaribagh, Ranchi and Singhbhum district of Chotanagpur plateau.
  • West Bengal: Fringe areas of Chotanagpur plateau and adjoining Rarh upland. The Chotanagpur plateau consist four erosion surfaces and interconnecting scarps that have been marked by three intermittent uplifts from early Tertiary to Pleistocene.