Published on: 11/21/2020 12:53:42 AM

About 65-70 % of the total population of the country is dependent on agriculture. Approximately 48.9 % of our population derives its livelihood from agriculture. It provides food to the second biggest population of cattle in the world. Our agro-based industries are fully dependent on raw material provided by agriculture. Agriculture with its allied activities accounts for 45 % for our national income.


Types of agriculture


Subsistence Farming

  • In this type of agriculture, farmers work hard to grow enough food to survive only.

Mixed Farming

  • The combination of agriculture and pastoral farming is known as mixed farming.
  • In this type of farming cultivation of crops and rearing of animals are done together on the same farm.

Jhum/Shifting Cultivation

  • This is primitive form of agriculture in which a plot of land is cultivated a few years and then is deserted.
  • This slash and burn method of farming is carried on in jungles of north-eastern part of India e.g. in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram etc.
  • A plot of land is cleared for cultivation. As the yield decreases after two or three years, the plot is abandoned and a fresh clearing is made.

Extensive Farming

  • This is a system of farming in which the cultivator uses a limited amount of labour and capital on relatively large area.
  • This type of agriculture is practised in countries where population size is small and land is enough.
  • Here, per acre yield is low but overall production is in surplus due to less population.
  • It is done with the help of machines.

Intensive Farming

  • This is a system of farming in which the cultivator uses large amount of labour and capital on a relatively small area.
  • This type of agriculture is done with of manual labour.

Plantation Agriculture

  • In this type of agriculture, trees or bushes are planted on huge estates.
  • A single crop like rubber, sugarcane, coffee, tea or banana is grown.
  • The outputs of this agriculture are major items of export.


(a) Kharif: May to July is the beginning phase of south-west monsoon when crops are sown. It ends with the harvest season during September-October. Important crops: Rice, maize, jowar, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, etc.

(b) Rabi: In this season, the sowing period is from October to December and the harvesting season is from September to October. Important crops grown during this season are wheat, potatoes, oil seeds, pulses, etc.

(c) Zaid: Artificial irrigation is the primary tool in conducting agriculture in this season. Zaid-kharif crops are sown during Aug-Sept and harvested during Dec-Jan. Whereas Zaid-rabi crops are sown during Feb-Mar and harvested during Apr-May. In the former, the important crops grown are rice, oil seeds, etc., and in the later season the important crops grown are watermelon, vegetables, cucumber, etc.